Taste 1 receptors C

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).

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Overview

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Whilst the taste of acid and salty foods appear to be sensed by regulation of ion channel activity, bitter, sweet and umami tastes are sensed by specialised GPCR. Two classes of taste GPCR have been identified, T1R and T2R, which are similar in sequence and structure to Class C and Class A GPCR, respectively. Activation of taste receptors appears to involve gustducin- (Gαt3) and Gα14-mediated signalling, although the precise mechanisms remain obscure. Gene disruption studies suggest the involvement of PLCβ2 [4], TRPM5 [4] and IP3 [1] receptors in post-receptor signalling of taste receptors. Although predominantly associated with the oral cavity, taste receptors are also located elsewhere, including further down the gastrointestinal system, in the lungs and in the brain.

Sweet/Umami
T1R3 acts as an obligate partner in T1R1/T1R3 and T1R2/T1R3 heterodimers, which sense umami or sweet, respectively. T1R1/T1R3 heterodimers respond to L-glutamic acid and may be positively allosterically modulated by 5'-nucleoside monophosphates, such as 5'-GMP [2]. T1R2/T1R3 heterodimers respond to sugars, such as sucrose, and artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin [3].

Receptors

TAS1R1 C Show summary » More detailed page

TAS1R2 C Show summary » More detailed page

TAS1R3 C Show summary » More detailed page

References

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How to cite this family page

Database page citation:

Taste 1 receptors. Accessed on 17/10/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/FamilyDisplayForward?familyId=116.

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Davenport AP, Kelly E, Marrion N, Peters JA, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Davies JA and CGTP Collaborators (2015) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: G protein-coupled receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 172: 5744-5869.