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Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).
The high affinity, hemicholinium-3-sensitive, choline transporter (CHT) is expressed mainly in cholinergic neurones on nerve cell terminals and synaptic vesicles (keratinocytes being an additional location). In autonomic neurones, expression of CHT requires an activity-dependent retrograde signal from postsynaptic neurones . Through recapture of choline generated by the hydrolysis of ACh by acetylcholinesterase, CHT serves to maintain acetylcholine synthesis within the presynaptic terminal . Homozygous mice engineered to lack CHT die within one hour of birth as a result of hypoxia arising from failure of transmission at the neuromuscular junction of the skeletal muscles that support respiration . A low affinity choline uptake mechanism that remains to be identified at the molecular level may involve multiple transporters. In addition, a family of choline transporter-like (CTL) proteins, (which are members of the SLC44 family) with weak Na+ dependence have been described .
1. Apparsundaram S, Ferguson SM, George AL, Blakely RD. (2000) Molecular cloning of a human, hemicholinium-3-sensitive choline transporter. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 276 (3): 862-7. [PMID:11027560]
2. Ferguson SM, Bazalakova M, Savchenko V, Tapia JC, Wright J, Blakely RD. (2004) Lethal impairment of cholinergic neurotransmission in hemicholinium-3-sensitive choline transporter knockout mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 101 (23): 8762-7. [PMID:15173594]
3. Ferguson SM, Blakely RD. (2004) The choline transporter resurfaces: new roles for synaptic vesicles?. Mol. Interv., 4 (1): 22-37. [PMID:14993474]
4. Iwamoto H, Blakely RD, De Felice LJ. (2006) Na+, Cl-, and pH dependence of the human choline transporter (hCHT) in Xenopus oocytes: the proton inactivation hypothesis of hCHT in synaptic vesicles. J. Neurosci., 26 (39): 9851-9. [PMID:17005849]
5. Krishnaswamy A, Cooper E. (2009) An activity-dependent retrograde signal induces the expression of the high-affinity choline transporter in cholinergic neurons. Neuron, 61 (2): 272-86. [PMID:19186169]
6. Okuda T, Haga T. (2000) Functional characterization of the human high-affinity choline transporter. FEBS Lett., 484 (2): 92-7. [PMID:11068039]
7. Okuda T, Haga T. (2003) High-affinity choline transporter. Neurochem. Res., 28 (3-4): 483-8. [PMID:12675135]
8. Traiffort E, Ruat M, O'Regan S, Meunier FM. (2005) Molecular characterization of the family of choline transporter-like proteins and their splice variants. J. Neurochem., 92 (5): 1116-25. [PMID:15715662]
Database page citation:
Choline transporter. Accessed on 30/04/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/FamilyDisplayForward?familyId=172.
Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:
Alexander SPH, Kelly E, Marrion N, Peters JA, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Davies JA and CGTP Collaborators (2015) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Transporters. Br J Pharmacol. 172: 6110-6202.