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The cytochrome P450 enzyme family (CYP450), E.C. 1.14.-.-, were originally defined by their strong absorbance at 450 nm due to the reduced carbon monoxide-complexed haem component of the cytochromes. They are an extensive family of haem-containing monooxygenases with a huge range of both endogenous and exogenous substrates. Listed below are the human enzymes; their relationship with rodent CYP450 enzyme activities is obscure in that the species orthologue may not mediate metabolism of the same substrates. Although the majority of CYP450 enzyme activities are concentrated in the liver, the extrahepatic enzyme activities also contribute to patho/physiological processes. Genetic variation of CYP450 isoforms is widespread and likely underlies a significant proportion of the individual variation to drug administration.
* Key recommended reading is highlighted with an asterisk
Ferguson CS, Tyndale RF. (2011) Cytochrome P450 enzymes in the brain: emerging evidence of biological significance. Trends Pharmacol. Sci., 32 (12): 708-14. [PMID:21975165]
* Guengerich FP, Cheng Q. (2011) Orphans in the human cytochrome P450 superfamily: approaches to discovering functions and relevance in pharmacology. Pharmacol. Rev., 63 (3): 684-99. [PMID:21737533]
Johnson JA, Cavallari LH. (2013) Pharmacogenetics and cardiovascular disease--implications for personalized medicine. Pharmacol. Rev., 65 (3): 987-1009. [PMID:23686351]
Jones G, Prosser DE, Kaufmann M. (2013) Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of vitamin D. J. Lipid Res., [Epub ahead of print]. [PMID:23564710]
* Lorbek G, Lewinska M, Rozman D. (2012) Cytochrome P450s in the synthesis of cholesterol and bile acids--from mouse models to human diseases. FEBS J., 279 (9): 1516-33. [PMID:22111624]
Miller WL, Auchus RJ. (2011) The molecular biology, biochemistry, and physiology of human steroidogenesis and its disorders. Endocr. Rev., 32 (1): 81-151. [PMID:21051590]
Omura T. (2010) Structural diversity of cytochrome P450 enzyme system. J. Biochem., 147 (3): 297-306. [PMID:20068028]
* Orr ST, Ripp SL, Ballard TE, Henderson JL, Scott DO, Obach RS, Sun H, Kalgutkar AS. (2012) Mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) of cytochrome P450 enzymes: structure-activity relationships and discovery strategies to mitigate drug-drug interaction risks. J. Med. Chem., 55 (11): 4896-933. [PMID:22409598]
* Peñas-Lledó EM, Llerena A. (2014) CYP2D6 variation, behaviour and psychopathology: implications for pharmacogenomics-guided clinical trials. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 77 (4): 673-83. [PMID:24033670]
* Ross AC, Zolfaghari R. (2011) Cytochrome P450s in the regulation of cellular retinoic acid metabolism. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 31: 65-87. [PMID:21529158]
Russell DW, Halford RW, Ramirez DM, Shah R, Kotti T. (2009) Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase: an enzyme of cholesterol turnover in the brain. Annu. Rev. Biochem., 78: 1017-40. [PMID:19489738]
* Shahabi P, Siest G, Meyer UA, Visvikis-Siest S. (2014) Human cytochrome P450 epoxygenases: variability in expression and role in inflammation-related disorders. Pharmacol. Ther., 144 (2): 134-61. [PMID:24882266]
Wang X, Li J, Dong G, Yue J. (2014) The endogenous substrates of brain CYP2D. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 724: 211-8. [PMID:24374199]
* Werk AN, Cascorbi I. (2014) Functional gene variants of CYP3A4. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 96 (3): 340-8. [PMID:24926778]
Xu M, Ju W, Hao H, Wang G, Li P. (2013) Cytochrome P450 2J2: distribution, function, regulation, genetic polymorphisms and clinical significance. Drug Metab. Rev., 45 (3): 311-52. [PMID:23865864]
Database page citation:
Cytochrome P450. Accessed on 28/03/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/FamilyDisplayForward?familyId=242.
Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:
Alexander SPH, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Marrion N, Peters JA, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Davies JA and CGTP Collaborators (2015) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 172: 6024-6109.