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Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).
Caspases, (E.C. 3.4.22.-) which derive their name from Cysteine ASPartate-specific proteASES, include at least two families; initiator caspases (caspases 2, 8, 9 and 10), which are able to hydrolyse and activate a second family of effector caspases (caspases 3, 6 and 7), which themselves are able to hydrolyse further cellular proteins to bring about programmed cell death. Caspases are heterotetrameric, being made up of two pairs of subunits, generated by a single gene product, which is proteolysed to form the mature protein. Members of the mammalian inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAP) are able to bind the procaspases, thereby preventing maturation to active proteinases.
1. Avivi-Green C, Polak-Charcon S, Madar Z, Schwartz B. (2002) Different molecular events account for butyrate-induced apoptosis in two human colon cancer cell lines. J. Nutr., 132 (7): 1812-8. [PMID:12097652]
2. Brockstedt E, Rickers A, Kostka S, Laubersheimer A, Dörken B, Wittmann-Liebold B, Bommert K, Otto A. (1998) Identification of apoptosis-associated proteins in a human Burkitt lymphoma cell line. Cleavage of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 by caspase 3. J. Biol. Chem., 273 (43): 28057-64. [PMID:9774422]
3. Gamen S, Anel A, Pérez-Galán P, Lasierra P, Johnson D, Piñeiro A, Naval J. (2000) Doxorubicin treatment activates a Z-VAD-sensitive caspase, which causes deltapsim loss, caspase-9 activity, and apoptosis in Jurkat cells. Exp. Cell Res., 258 (1): 223-35. [PMID:10912804]
4. Gregoli PA, Bondurant MC. (1999) Function of caspases in regulating apoptosis caused by erythropoietin deprivation in erythroid progenitors. J. Cell. Physiol., 178 (2): 133-43. [PMID:10048577]
5. Izban KF, Ergin M, Huang Q, Qin JZ, Martinez RL, Schnitzer B, Ni H, Nickoloff BJ, Alkan S. (2001) Characterization of NF-kappaB expression in Hodgkin's disease: inhibition of constitutively expressed NF-kappaB results in spontaneous caspase-independent apoptosis in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. Mod. Pathol., 14 (4): 297-310. [PMID:11301346]
6. Jiang X, Kim HE, Shu H, Zhao Y, Zhang H, Kofron J, Donnelly J, Burns D, Ng SC, Rosenberg S et al.. (2003) Distinctive roles of PHAP proteins and prothymosin-alpha in a death regulatory pathway. Science, 299 (5604): 223-6. [PMID:12522243]
7. Mocanu MM, Baxter GF, Yellon DM. (2000) Caspase inhibition and limitation of myocardial infarct size: protection against lethal reperfusion injury. Br. J. Pharmacol., 130 (2): 197-200. [PMID:10807653]
8. Naito T, Yokogawa T, Kim HS, Futagami M, Wataya Y, Matsuda A, Fukushima M, Kitade Y, Sasaki T. (2002) Anticancer mechanisms of 1-(3-C-ethynyl-beta-D-ribo-pentofuranosyl) cytosine (ECyd, TAS-106). Nucleic Acids Res. Suppl., (2): 241-2. [PMID:12903195]
9. Putt KS, Chen GW, Pearson JM, Sandhorst JS, Hoagland MS, Kwon JT, Hwang SK, Jin H, Churchwell MI, Cho MH et al.. (2006) Small-molecule activation of procaspase-3 to caspase-3 as a personalized anticancer strategy. Nat. Chem. Biol., 2 (10): 543-50. [PMID:16936720]
10. Ruchaud S, Korfali N, Villa P, Kottke TJ, Dingwall C, Kaufmann SH, Earnshaw WC. (2002) Caspase-6 gene disruption reveals a requirement for lamin A cleavage in apoptotic chromatin condensation. EMBO J., 21 (8): 1967-77. [PMID:11953316]
11. Scott CW, Sobotka-Briner C, Wilkins DE, Jacobs RT, Folmer JJ, Frazee WJ, Bhat RV, Ghanekar SV, Aharony D. (2003) Novel small molecule inhibitors of caspase-3 block cellular and biochemical features of apoptosis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 304 (1): 433-40. [PMID:12490620]
Database page citation:
C14: Caspase. Accessed on 24/04/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/FamilyDisplayForward?familyId=734.
Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:
Alexander SPH, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Marrion N, Peters JA, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Davies JA and CGTP Collaborators (2015) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 172: 6024-6109.