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Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).
The RAS proteins (HRAS, NRAS and KRAS) are small membrane-localised G protein-like molecules of 21 kd. They act as an on/off switch linking receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinase activation to downstream cytoplasmic or nuclear events. Binding of GTP activates the switch, and hydrolysis of the GTP to GDP inactivates the switch.
The RAS proto-oncogenes are the most frequently mutated class of proteins in human cancers. Common mutations compromise the GTP-hydrolysing ability of the proteins causing constitutive activation , which leads to increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis . Because of their importance in oncogenic transformation these proteins have become the targets of intense drug discovery effort .
1. Baines AT, Xu D, Der CJ. (2011) Inhibition of Ras for cancer treatment: the search continues. Future Med Chem, 3 (14): 1787-808. [PMID:22004085]
2. Liu M, Bryant MS, Chen J, Lee S, Yaremko B, Lipari P, Malkowski M, Ferrari E, Nielsen L, Prioli N et al.. (1998) Antitumor activity of SCH 66336, an orally bioavailable tricyclic inhibitor of farnesyl protein transferase, in human tumor xenograft models and wap-ras transgenic mice. Cancer Res., 58 (21): 4947-56. [PMID:9810004]
3. Stanley LA. (1995) Molecular aspects of chemical carcinogenesis: the roles of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. Toxicology, 96 (3): 173-94. [PMID:7900159]
4. Zhang J, Lodish HF. (2007) Endogenous K-ras signaling in erythroid differentiation. Cell Cycle, 6 (16): 1970-3. [PMID:17721087]
Database page citation:
RAS subfamily. Accessed on 24/04/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/FamilyDisplayForward?familyId=897.
Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:
Alexander SPH, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Marrion N, Peters JA, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Davies JA and CGTP Collaborators (2015) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 172: 6024-6109.