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Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).
The reticulon family is a large group of phylogenetically conserved membrane-associated proteins [4,6]. Alternative splicing is common within this gene family, with the four mammalian genes (RTN1–4) generating 11 well documented splice variants . Although these proteins are structurally diverse, they all contain a highly retained functional domain known as the carboxy-terminal reticulon homology domain (RHD), which contains two hydrophobic regions flanking a hydrophilic loop of 60-70 amino acids.
Expression of reticulons is generally restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum, with evidence suggesting they play a role in shaping the highly curved membranes of the tubular endoplasmic reticulum network (thereby influencing endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi transport), vesicle formation, and inhibition of axonal growth . Accumulating evidence is implicating reticulons in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases [1-2,5], and because of this activity certain reticulons have emerged as novel molecular targets for pharmaceutical intervention.
1. Chiurchiù V, Maccarrone M, Orlacchio A. (2014) The role of reticulons in neurodegenerative diseases. Neuromolecular Med., 16 (1): 3-15. [PMID:24218324]
2. GrandPré T, Nakamura F, Vartanian T, Strittmatter SM. (2000) Identification of the Nogo inhibitor of axon regeneration as a Reticulon protein. Nature, 403 (6768): 439-44. [PMID:10667797]
3. Mi S, Lee X, Shao Z, Thill G, Ji B, Relton J, Levesque M, Allaire N, Perrin S, Sands B et al.. (2004) LINGO-1 is a component of the Nogo-66 receptor/p75 signaling complex. Nat. Neurosci., 7 (3): 221-8. [PMID:14966521]
4. Oertle T, Klinger M, Stuermer CA, Schwab ME. (2003) A reticular rhapsody: phylogenic evolution and nomenclature of the RTN/Nogo gene family. FASEB J., 17 (10): 1238-47. [PMID:12832288]
5. Yan R, Shi Q, Hu X, Zhou X. (2006) Reticulon proteins: emerging players in neurodegenerative diseases. Cell. Mol. Life Sci., 63 (7-8): 877-89. [PMID:16505974]
6. Yang YS, Strittmatter SM. (2007) The reticulons: a family of proteins with diverse functions. Genome Biol., 8 (12): 234. [PMID:18177508]
Database page citation:
Reticulons and associated proteins. Accessed on 27/03/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/FamilyDisplayForward?familyId=905.
Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:
Alexander SPH, Kelly E, Marrion N, Peters JA, Benson HE, Faccenda E, Pawson AJ, Sharman JL, Southan C, Buneman OP, Catterall WA, Cidlowski JA, Davenport AP, Fabbro D, Fan G, McGrath JC, Spedding M, Davies JA and CGTP Collaborators (2015) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2015/16: Overview. Br J Pharmacol. 172: 5729-5743.