OPN3

Target id: 160

Nomenclature: OPN3

Family: Opsin receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     Currently no data for OPN3 in GtoImmuPdb

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 402 1q43 OPN3 opsin 3
Mouse 7 400 1 H3 Opn3 opsin 3
Rat 7 400 13q25 Opn3 opsin 3
Previous and Unofficial Names
ECPN | Encephalopsin | Panopsin | opsin 3
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB opn3_human (Hs), opn3_mouse (Mm)
Other databases
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Gene
OMIM
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
Comments: Probably a sensory receptor.
Tissue Distribution
Brain, liver, retina
Species:  Human
Technique:  Northern blot
References:  2
Eye
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  5
Major tissues in human with particularly higher expression in lung, placenta and spleen. Highly expressed in immune cells such as macrophages, bronchiolar epithelium, primary T cells and dendritic cells.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  6
Lung bronchiolar epithelium, T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, neurons within subtantia nigra, the neural layers of retina including the ganglion cell layer, photoreceptor layer, outer and inner plexiform layers
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  6
Thalamus: VPL, posterior thalamus, dorsomedial thalamus, lateral and medial geniculate nuclei, mediodorsal nuclei; Cerebellum: Purkinje cells; Cerebral cortex: Highly expressed in frontal, perirhinal, cingulated, insular cortex. Negligible expression in parietal, temporal and occipital cortices; anteromedial preoptic area; subfornical organ.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  in situ hybridisation
References:  1
Eye
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  5
Wild type proestrus pituitary > Wild type metestrus pituitary > Pituitary of ERα knockout mice
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Microarray analysis, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry
References:  3
Cerebellum, cortex, testes.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Northern blot
References:  1
LHβ-positive cells in pituitary, including those in gonadotroph
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Double immunofluorescence
References:  3
Eye
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  4
Tissue Distribution Comments
Expression of OPN3 occurs early in ocular development of humans and mice [5]. OPN3 expression is developmentally regulated [1]. No expression of OPN3 is found in the embryonic cerebellum and cerebral cortex. The expession levels of OPN3 in cerebellum and cortex are higher in the adult than in the neonate. Rostrocaudal gradients of OPN3 expression are observed in cortex and striatum [1]. Both rostrocaudal gradients and radial stripes of OPN3 expression are seen in cerelbellum.
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Physiological Functions
Regulation of GnRH-induced LH secretion
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Pituitary gland
References:  3
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
Human Jurkat T cells with OPN3 knockout show inhibition of IL-2 production in response to T-cell activation.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Jurkat T cells
Technique:  Gene knockout
References:  6
Gene Expression and Pathophysiology Comments
Polymorphisms in the OPN3 gene have been found to be associated with asthma [6].
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Amino acid change:  V183I
Global MAF (%):  2
Subpopulation MAF (%):  ASN|EUR: 8|1
Minor allele count:  T=0.024/52
Comment on frequency:  Low frequency (<10% in all tested populations)
SNP accession: 
Validation:  1000 Genomes, HapMap, Frequency
Type:  Naturally occurring SNP
Species:  Human
Amino acid change:  A167V
SNP accession: 
General Comments
OPN3 depends on ERα for its expression in the pituitary [3].

References

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1. Blackshaw S, Snyder SH. (1999) Encephalopsin: a novel mammalian extraretinal opsin discretely localized in the brain. J. Neurosci.19 (10): 3681-90. [PMID:10234000]

2. Halford S, Freedman MS, Bellingham J, Inglis SL, Poopalasundaram S, Soni BG, Foster RG, Hunt DM. (2001) Characterization of a novel human opsin gene with wide tissue expression and identification of embedded and flanking genes on chromosome 1q43. Genomics72 (2): 203-8. [PMID:11401433]

3. Kim HJ, Gieske MC, Trudgen KL, Hudgins-Spivey S, Kim BG, Krust A, Chambon P, Jeong JW, Blalock E, Ko C. (2011) Identification of estradiol/ERα-regulated genes in the mouse pituitary. J. Endocrinol.210 (3): 309-21. [PMID:21700660]

4. Nieto PS, Valdez DJ, Acosta-Rodríguez VA, Guido ME. (2011) Expression of novel opsins and intrinsic light responses in the mammalian retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5. Presence of OPN5 in the rat retina. PLoS ONE6 (10): e26417. [PMID:22022612]

5. Tarttelin EE, Bellingham J, Bibb LC, Foster RG, Hankins MW, Gregory-Evans K, Gregory-Evans CY, Wells DJ, Lucas RJ. (2003) Expression of opsin genes early in ocular development of humans and mice. Exp. Eye Res.76 (3): 393-6. [PMID:12573668]

6. White JH, Chiano M, Wigglesworth M, Geske R, Riley J, White N, Hall S, Zhu G, Maurio F, Savage T, Anderson W, Cordy J, Ducceschi M, GAIN investigators, Vestbo J, Pillai SG. (2008) Identification of a novel asthma susceptibility gene on chromosome 1qter and its functional evaluation. Hum. Mol. Genet.17 (13): 1890-903. [PMID:18344558]

How to cite this page

Opsin receptors: OPN3. Last modified on 30/10/2017. Accessed on 22/01/2018. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=160.