GHRH receptor

Target id: 247

Nomenclature: GHRH receptor

Family: Glucagon receptor family

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     Currently no data for GHRH receptor in GtoImmuPdb

Gene and Protein Information
class B G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 423 7p14 GHRHR growth hormone releasing hormone receptor 12,22
Mouse 7 423 6 B3 Ghrhr growth hormone releasing hormone receptor 20,23
Rat 7 464 4q24 Ghrhr growth hormone releasing hormone receptor 20
Previous and Unofficial Names
GRF receptor
GRFR
growth hormone-releasing factor receptor
Ghrfr
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB ghrhr_human (Hs), ghrhr_mouse (Mm), ghrhr_rat (Rn)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
DrugBank Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project
KEGG Gene
OMIM
Orphanet
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
GHRH {Sp: Human} , GHRH {Sp: Mouse} , GHRH {Sp: Rat}

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
[125I]GHRH (human) Rn Full agonist 7.6 pKd 5
pKd 7.6 (Kd 2.8x10-8 M) [5]
JMR-132 Hs Agonist 9.9 pIC50 6
pIC50 9.9 (IC50 1.4x10-10 M) [6]
Description: Measuring displacement of [125I]JV-1-42 in a radioligand binding assay.
GHRH-(1-29)-NH2 (rat) Rn Full agonist 9.1 pIC50 11
pIC50 9.1 [11]
GHRH-(1-29)-NH2 (human) Rn Full agonist 8.2 pIC50 11
pIC50 8.2 [11]
GHRH-(1-29)-OH (human) Rn Full agonist 8.0 pIC50 11
pIC50 8.0 [11]
BIM28011 Hs Full agonist - - 10
[10]
JI-38 Hs Agonist - - 8
[8]
JI-38 Rn Agonist - - 17
[17]
tesamorelin Hs Agonist - -
sermorelin Hs Agonist - -
View species-specific agonist tables
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
JV-1-37 Rn Antagonist 10.4 pKi 29
pKi 10.4 [29]
JV-1-40 Rn Antagonist 10.4 pKi 29
pKi 10.4 [29]
JV-1-41 Rn Antagonist 10.4 pKi 29
pKi 10.4 [29]
JV-1-42 Rn Antagonist 10.4 pKi 29
pKi 10.4 [29]
JV-1-43 Rn Antagonist 10.4 pKi 29
pKi 10.4 [29]
MZ-4-169 Rn Antagonist 10.4 pKi 32
pKi 10.4 [32]
MZ-4-243 Rn Antagonist 10.4 pKi 32
pKi 10.4 [32]
JV-1-10 Rn Antagonist 10.3 pKi 29
pKi 10.3 [29]
MZ-4-181 Rn Antagonist 10.3 pKi 32
pKi 10.3 [32]
JV-1-36 Rn Antagonist 10.1 – 10.4 pKi 26,29-30
pKi 10.1 – 10.4 (Ki 7.9x10-11 – 3.9x10-11 M) [26,29-30]
JV-1-62 Rn Antagonist 10.2 pKi 30
pKi 10.2 [30]
JV-1-63 Rn Antagonist 10.2 pKi 30
pKi 10.2 [30]
MZ-5-156 Rn Antagonist 10.2 pKi 31
pKi 10.2 [31]
MZ-6-55 Rn Antagonist 10.2 pKi 29
pKi 10.2 [29]
JV-1-38 Rn Antagonist 10.1 pKi 26,29-30
pKi 10.1 (Ki 7.9x10-11 M) [26,29-30]
JV-1-39 Rn Antagonist 10.1 pKi 29
pKi 10.1 [29]
MZ-4-71 Rn Antagonist 9.9 pKi 31-32
pKi 9.9 [31-32]
[Ac-Tyr1, D-Arg2]GHRH-(1-29)-NH2 (human) Rn Antagonist 8.3 – 8.5 pKi 29-32
pKi 8.3 – 8.5 [29-32]
MZ-5-192 Rn Antagonist 10.2 pIC50 31
pIC50 10.2 [31]
MZ-5-78 Rn Antagonist 10.2 pIC50 31
pIC50 10.2 [31]
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gs family Adenylate cyclase stimulation
Calcium channel
References:  18
Tissue Distribution
Pituitary.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Northern blotting.
References:  12
Henle's loop of the renal medulla, anterior pituitary.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Northern blotting.
References:  4
Pituitary and kidney.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  in situ hybridisation and RNAse protection assay.
References:  27
Renal medulla, renal pelvis, pituitary >> heart, lung, duodenum, small intestine, spleen, adrenal gland, epididymis, skeletal muscle, cerebellum, thyroid gland, colon, renal cortex, ureter, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, brainstem.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Southern blot and RT-PCR.
References:  21
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
Measurement of cAMP in COS cells transfected with the human GHRH receptor.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Transient transfected COS cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of intracellular cAMP accumulation.
References:  12
Measuring the changes in membrane potential of GH-secreting adenoma cells upon receptor activation.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  GH-secreting adenoma cells.
Response measured:  Increase in Na2+ conductance.
References:  27
Measurement of changes in cAMP and GH release from rat pituitary cells when treated with GHRH receptor antagonists.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Superfused pituitary cells.
Response measured:  Inhibition of cAMP and GH release upon antagonist binding.
References:  16
Measurement of intracellular cAMP levels in GH3 cells.
Measurement of GH (growth hormone) and PRL (prolactin) secretion from GH3 cells.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  GH3 pituitary tumour cells.
Response measured:  Increase in intracellular cAMP and cAMP efflux.
Increases in GH and PRL secretion.
References:  19
Physiological Functions
Stimulation of GH release.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Pancreatic tumour.
References:  14,25
Stimulation of pituitary somatotroph cell proliferation.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Pituitary somatotroph cells.
References:  3
Stimulation of GH gene transcription.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Pituitary cells.
References:  2,13
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0003194 abnormal frequency of paradoxical sleep PMID: 12388430 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr/J
MGI:95710  MP:0002078 abnormal glucose homeostasis PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0001882 abnormal lactation PMID: 1270792 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0005266 abnormal metabolism PMID: 12537301 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0001731 abnormal postnatal growth PMID: 12537301  978118 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0002113 abnormal skeleton development PMID: 978118 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0001501 abnormal sleep pattern PMID: 12388430 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0008322 abnormal somatotroph morphology PMID: 6194978 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0008437 absent somatotroph secretory granules PMID: 6194978 
Ghrhr+|Ghrhrlit|M14104Asr|M14104Asr+ Ghrhrlit/Ghrhr+,M14104Asr/M14104Asr+
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr M14104Asr
MGI:3819960  MGI:95710  MP:0001262 decreased body weight PMID: 18063435 
Ghrhrlit|M14104Asr|M14104Asr+ Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,M14104Asr/M14104Asr+
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr M14104Asr
MGI:3819960  MGI:95710  MP:0001262 decreased body weight PMID: 18063435 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr/J
MGI:95710  MP:0001262 decreased body weight PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit|Prlrtm1Cnp Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,Prlrtm1Cnp/Prlrtm1Cnp
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6J
MGI:95710  MGI:97763  MP:0001262 decreased body weight PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit|Prlrtm1Cnp Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,Prlrtm1Cnp/Prlrtm1Cnp
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6J
MGI:95710  MGI:97763  MP:0000063 decreased bone density PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0004016 decreased bone mass PMID: 12537301 
Ghrhr+|Ghrhrlit|M14104Asr|M14104Asr+ Ghrhrlit/Ghrhr+,M14104Asr/M14104Asr+
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr M14104Asr
MGI:3819960  MGI:95710  MP:0004016 decreased bone mass PMID: 18063435 
Ghrhrlit|M14104Asr|M14104Asr+ Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,M14104Asr/M14104Asr+
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr M14104Asr
MGI:3819960  MGI:95710  MP:0004016 decreased bone mass PMID: 18063435 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr/J
MGI:95710  MP:0005560 decreased circulating glucose level PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit|Prlrtm1Cnp Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,Prlrtm1Cnp/Prlrtm1Cnp
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6J
MGI:95710  MGI:97763  MP:0005560 decreased circulating glucose level PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0005120 decreased circulating growth hormone level PMID: 7679139 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr/J
MGI:95710  MP:0004701 decreased circulating insulin-like growth factor I level PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit|Prlrtm1Cnp Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,Prlrtm1Cnp/Prlrtm1Cnp
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6J
MGI:95710  MGI:97763  MP:0004701 decreased circulating insulin-like growth factor I level PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhr+|Ghrhrlit|M14104Asr|M14104Asr+ Ghrhrlit/Ghrhr+,M14104Asr/M14104Asr+
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr M14104Asr
MGI:3819960  MGI:95710  MP:0008152 decreased diameter of femur PMID: 18063435 
Ghrhrlit|M14104Asr|M14104Asr+ Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,M14104Asr/M14104Asr+
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr M14104Asr
MGI:3819960  MGI:95710  MP:0008152 decreased diameter of femur PMID: 18063435 
Ghrhrlit|Prlrtm1Cnp Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,Prlrtm1Cnp/Prlrtm1Cnp
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6J
MGI:95710  MGI:97763  MP:0003910 decreased eating behavior PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0005136 decreased growth hormone level PMID: 1270792 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr/J
MGI:95710  MP:0003961 decreased lean body mass PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit|Prlrtm1Cnp Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,Prlrtm1Cnp/Prlrtm1Cnp
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6J
MGI:95710  MGI:97763  MP:0003961 decreased lean body mass PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0005138 decreased prolactin level PMID: 1270792 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0008329 decreased somatotroph cell number PMID: 6194978 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0008417 decreased somatotroph cell size PMID: 6194978 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0008436 decreased somatotroph secretory granule number PMID: 6194978 
Ghrhrlit|Prlrtm1Cnp Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,Prlrtm1Cnp/Prlrtm1Cnp
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6J
MGI:95710  MGI:97763  MP:0005293 impaired glucose tolerance PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr/J
MGI:95710  MP:0000062 increased bone density PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhr+|Ghrhrlit|M14104Asr|M14104Asr+ Ghrhrlit/Ghrhr+,M14104Asr/M14104Asr+
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr M14104Asr
MGI:3819960  MGI:95710  MP:0010120 increased bone mineral density PMID: 18063435 
Ghrhrlit|M14104Asr|M14104Asr+ Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,M14104Asr/M14104Asr+
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr M14104Asr
MGI:3819960  MGI:95710  MP:0010120 increased bone mineral density PMID: 18063435 
Ghrhrlit|Prlrtm1Cnp Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,Prlrtm1Cnp/Prlrtm1Cnp
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6J
MGI:95710  MGI:97763  MP:0005559 increased circulating glucose level PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr/J
MGI:95710  MP:0002079 increased circulating insulin level PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit|Prlrtm1Cnp Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,Prlrtm1Cnp/Prlrtm1Cnp
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6J
MGI:95710  MGI:97763  MP:0002079 increased circulating insulin level PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit|Prlrtm1Cnp Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,Prlrtm1Cnp/Prlrtm1Cnp
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6J
MGI:95710  MGI:97763  MP:0005669 increased circulating leptin level PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhr+|Ghrhrlit|M14104Asr|M14104Asr+ Ghrhrlit/Ghrhr+,M14104Asr/M14104Asr+
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr M14104Asr
MGI:3819960  MGI:95710  MP:0008162 increased diameter of tibia PMID: 18063435 
Ghrhrlit|M14104Asr|M14104Asr+ Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,M14104Asr/M14104Asr+
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr M14104Asr
MGI:3819960  MGI:95710  MP:0008162 increased diameter of tibia PMID: 18063435 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0003212 increased susceptibility to age related obesity PMID: 1270792 
Ghrhrlit|Prlrtm1Cnp Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,Prlrtm1Cnp/Prlrtm1Cnp
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6J
MGI:95710  MGI:97763  MP:0003212 increased susceptibility to age related obesity PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0010024 increased total body fat amount PMID: 7679139 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr/J
MGI:95710  MP:0010024 increased total body fat amount PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit|Prlrtm1Cnp Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,Prlrtm1Cnp/Prlrtm1Cnp
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6J
MGI:95710  MGI:97763  MP:0010024 increased total body fat amount PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit|Prlrtm1Cnp Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,Prlrtm1Cnp/Prlrtm1Cnp
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6J
MGI:95710  MGI:97763  MP:0005331 insulin resistance PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0001261 obese PMID: 12537301 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0001732 postnatal growth retardation PMID: 1270792 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr/J
MGI:95710  MP:0008489 postnatal slow weight gain PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit|Prlrtm1Cnp Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,Prlrtm1Cnp/Prlrtm1Cnp
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6J
MGI:95710  MGI:97763  MP:0008489 postnatal slow weight gain PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0008974 proportional dwarf PMID: 978118 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0001922 reduced male fertility PMID: 1270792 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr/J
MGI:95710  MP:0003109 short femur PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit|Prlrtm1Cnp Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit,Prlrtm1Cnp/Prlrtm1Cnp
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6J
MGI:95710  MGI:97763  MP:0003109 short femur PMID: 15388648 
Ghrhrlit Ghrhrlit/Ghrhrlit
C57BL/6J-Ghrhr
MGI:95710  MP:0005361 small pituitary gland PMID: 1270792 
Clinically-Relevant Mutations and Pathophysiology
Disease:  Isolated growth hormone deficiency type IB
OMIM: 612781
Orphanet: ORPHA231671
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  An Ala -> Thr mutation has been found in human GH-secreting somatotrophinomas (however it is not a somatic mutation). Transfection studies have shown the receptor to have an increased sensitivity to GHRH, thought possible to have a role in tumorigenesis.
Amino acid change:  A57T
References:  1
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Human
Description:  A splice variant has been identified in human bone cancer cells It appears to mediate the antiproliferative effects of GHRH receptor antagonists in tumoral cells.
References:  7
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Human
Description:  A splice variant of the human GHRH receptor has been found in the normal pituitary and pituitary tumours. It is also found to be truncated and unable to transmit GHRH signals.
References:  15,24,28
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Rat
Description:  A splice variant has been found in rat pituitary cells. The splicing occurs at the carboxyl-terminal and retains the ability of the receptor to signal as normal.
References:  33
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Rat
Description:  The rat receptor has a splice variant in which 41 amino acids from exon 11 are inserted into the third cytoplasmic domain. This variant binds GHRH but does not transduce a signal.
References:  23
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  The Ala176 -> Val mutation was found in two male siblings born in Pakistan who exhibited no abnormalities apart from a short stature and delayed bone age.
Expression of this mutant receptor in CHO cells showed that the mutation disrupted the signalling pathways of the receptor and caused GHRH resistance.
Amino acid change:  A176V
References:  9

References

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1. Adams EF, Symowski H, Buchfelder M, Poyner DR. (2000) A polymorphism in the growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor gene is associated with elevated response to GHRH by human pituitary somatotrophinomas in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun275: 33-36. [PMID:10944436]

2. Barinaga M, Rosenfeld MG. (1983) Transcriptional regulation of growth hormone gene expression by growth hormone-releasing factor. Nature306: 84-85. [PMID:6415487]

3. Billestrup N, Vale W. (1986) Growth hormone-releasing factor stimulates proliferation of somatotrophsin vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.83: 6854-6857. [PMID:3018748]

4. Boisvert C, Pare C, Veyrat-Durebex C, Robert A, Dubuisson S, Morel G, Gaudreau P. (2002) Localization and regulation of a functional GHRH receptor in the rat renal medulla. Endocrinology143: 1475-1484. [PMID:11897706]

5. Boulanger L, Girard N, Strecko J, Gaudreau P. (2002) Characterization of a growth hormone-releasing hormone binding site in the rat renal medulla. Peptides23 (1): 43-50. [PMID:11814616]

6. Buchholz S, Schally AV, Engel JB, Hohla F, Heinrich E, Koester F, Varga JL, Halmos G. (2007) Potentiation of mammary cancer inhibition by combination of antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone with docetaxel. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104 (6): 1943-6. [PMID:17261802]

7. Busto R, Schally AV, Braczkowski R, Plonowski A, Krupa M, Groot K, Armatis P, Varga JL. (2002) Expression of mRNA for growth hormone-releasing hormone and splice variants of GHRH receptors in human malignant bone tumors. Regul Pept108: 47-53. [PMID:12220726]

8. Cai R, Schally AV, Cui T, Szalontay L, Halmos G, Sha W, Kovacs M, Jaszberenyi M, He J, Rick FG et al.. (2014) Synthesis of new potent agonistic analogs of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and evaluation of their endocrine and cardiac activities. Peptides52: 104-12. [PMID:24373935]

9. Carakushansky M, Whatmore AJ, Clayton PE, Shalet SM, Gleeson HK, Price DA, Levine MA, Salvatori R. (2003) A new missense mutation in the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor gene in familial isolated GH deficiency. Eur J Endocrinol148: 25-30. [PMID:12534354]

10. Coy DH, Murphy WA. (1996) Structural simplification of potent growth hormone-releasing hormone analogs: implications for other members of the VIP/GHRH/PACAP family. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.805: 149-158. [PMID:8993400]

11. Gaudreau P, Boulanger L, Abribat T. (1992) Affinity of human growth hormone-releasing factor (1-29)NH2 analogues for GRF binding sites in rat adenopituitary. J Med Chem32: 1864-1869. [PMID:1534126]

12. Gaylinn BD, Thorner MO. (1993) Molecular cloning and expression of a human anterior pituitary receptor for growth hormone-releasing hormone. Mol. Endocrinol.7: 77-84. [PMID:7680413]

13. Gick GG, Bancroft C. (1984) Growth hormone-releasing factor regulates growth hormone mRNA in primary cultures of rat pituitary cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.81: 1553-1555. [PMID:6424119]

14. Guillemin R, Wehrenberg WB. (1982) Growth hormone-releasing factor from a human pancreatic tumor that caused acromegaly. Science218: 585-587. [PMID:6812220]

15. Hashimoto K, Kishimoto T. (1995) Identification of alternatively spliced messenger ribonucleic acid encoding truncated growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor in human pituitary adenomas. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.80: 2933-2939. [PMID:7559877]

16. Horvath JE, Zarandi M, Groot K, Schally AV. (1995) Effect of long-acting antagonists of growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone on GH and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate release in superfused rat pituitary cells. Endocrinology136: 3849-3855. [PMID:7649091]

17. Kanashiro-Takeuchi RM, Tziomalos K, Takeuchi LM, Treuer AV, Lamirault G, Dulce R, Hurtado M, Song Y, Block NL, Rick F et al.. (2010) Cardioprotective effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone agonist after myocardial infarction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107 (6): 2604-9. [PMID:20133784]

18. Kostic TS, Tomic M, Andric SA, Stojilkovic SS. (2002) Calcium-independent and cAMP-dependent modulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase activity by G protein-coupled receptors in pituitary cells. J Biol Chem277: 16412-16418. [PMID:11867632]

19. Kovacs M, Schally AV, Lee EJ, Busto R, Armatis P, Groot K, Varga JL. (2002) Inhibitory effects of antagonistic analogs of GHRH on GH3 pituitary cells overexpressing the human GHRH receptor. J Endocrinol175: 425-434. [PMID:12429040]

20. Lin C, Rosenfeld MG. (1992) Pit-1-dependent expression of the receptor for growth hormone releasing factor mediates pituitary cell growth. Nature360: 765-768. [PMID:1334535]

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Dominique Bataille, Philippe Delagrange, Daniel J. Drucker, Burkhard Göke, Rebecca Hills, Kelly E. Mayo, Laurence J. Miller, Bernard Thorens.
Glucagon receptor family: GHRH receptor. Last modified on 18/04/2016. Accessed on 19/08/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=247.