GIP receptor

Target id: 248

Nomenclature: GIP receptor

Family: Glucagon receptor family

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates.  » Email us

   GtoImmuPdb view: OFF :     Currently no data for GIP receptor in GtoImmuPdb

Gene and Protein Information
class B G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 466 19q13.3 GIPR gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor 16
Mouse 7 - 7 A2 Gipr gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor
Rat 7 455 1q21 Gipr gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor 15
Previous and Unofficial Names
Gippr
GIP-R
Database Links
Specialist databases
GPCRDB gipr_human (Hs), gipr_mouse (Mm), gipr_rat (Rn)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project
KEGG Gene
OMIM
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Selected 3D Structures
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  GIP receptor extracellular domain in complex with its endogenous ligand.
PDB Id:  2QKH
Ligand:  gastric inhibitory polypeptide   This ligand is endogenous
Resolution:  1.9Å
Species:  Human
References:  10
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
gastric inhibitory polypeptide {Sp: Human} , gastric inhibitory polypeptide {Sp: Mouse} , gastric inhibitory polypeptide {Sp: Rat}

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file

Agonists
Key to terms and symbols Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
gastric inhibitory polypeptide {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 8.7 pKd 16
pKd 8.7 [16]
gastric inhibitory polypeptide {Sp: Rat} Rn Full agonist 8.6 pKd 4
pKd 8.6 [4]
[125I]GIP (human) Rn Full agonist 8.6 pKd 4
pKd 8.6 (Kd 2.51x10-9 M) [4]
gastric inhibitory polypeptide {Sp: Human} Hs Agonist 9.1 pKi 7
pKi 9.1 (Ki 7.5x10-10 M) [7]
human GIP(1-30)NH2 Hs Agonist 9.1 pKi 7
pKi 9.1 (Ki 8.9x10-10 M) [7]
Description: Value derived from ligand binding In a competitive binding assay.
gastric inhibitory polypeptide {Sp: Human} Rn Full agonist 8.6 pIC50 6
pIC50 8.6 [6]
GIP-(6-30)-amide Rn Full agonist 8.5 pIC50 6
pIC50 8.5 [6]
GIP-(7-30) Rn Partial agonist 6.8 pIC50 6
pIC50 6.8 [6]
GIP-(10-30) Rn Partial agonist 6.2 pIC50 6
pIC50 6.2 [6]
View species-specific agonist tables
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
human GIP(3-30)NH2 Hs Antagonist 8.6 pKi 7
pKi 8.6 (Ki 2.3x10-9 M) [7]
human GIP(5-30)NH2 Hs Antagonist 8.2 pKi 7
pKi 8.2 (Ki 5.9x10-9 M) [7]
human GIP(3-42)NH2 Hs Binding 7.7 pIC50 2
pIC50 7.7 (IC50 2.2x10-8 M) [2]
Description: Binding affinity for the human receptor expressed in COS7 cells.
human GIP(3-42)NH2 Hs Antagonist 6.1 – 7.0 pIC50 2
pIC50 6.1 – 7.0 (IC50 7.31x10-7 – 9.2x10-8 M) [2]
Description: Measuring in vitro inhibition of native GIP-induced cAMP accumulation at [GIP] of 10 pM and 1 nM.
MK-0893 Hs Antagonist 6.0 pIC50 18
pIC50 6.0 (IC50 1.02x10-6 M) [18]
[Pro3]GIP Mm Antagonist - - 5
[5]
View species-specific antagonist tables
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Gs family Adenylate cyclase stimulation
References: 
Secondary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
Phospholipase A2 stimulation
References:  3
Tissue Distribution
Umbilical, aortic and pulmonary artery endothelial cells.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Southern blot, Western blot
References:  19
Heart tissue.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Western blotting.
References:  19
Highest levels in the olfactory bulb and layers 3 and 5 of the cerebral cortex.
Relatively high levels in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus, the mammilary bodies and the medial part of the inferior colliculus.
Moderate levels in the anterior and lateral septum, cortical amygdala, claustrum, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, inferior olive, rostral raphe nuclei, including the linear and dorsal raphe nuclei, and the choroid plexus.
Small regions such as the the area subpostrema and a small group of cells in the frontopolar cortex.
Relatively low levels in the striatum.
Endothelium of large blood vessels within the brain.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  in situ hybridisation.
References:  15
Epidemial fat.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR and RNase protection assay.
References:  8
Pancreas, stomach, duodenum, proximal small intestine, fat, adrenal and pituitary.
Not detected in the spleen or liver.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  15
Bone.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Western blotting.
References:  1
Brain: highest levels found in the olfactory bulb.
Also in the telencephalon, diencephalon, brainstem and cerebellum.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR.
References:  15
Small discrete groups of cells within the pancreas; cardiac endothlium; endothelium of major blood vessels; cells within the bronchioles of the lung (may be endothelial cells); inner layers of the cortex of the adrenals; adipose tissue; weak detection in the epithelium of the stomach and small and large intestines.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  in situ hybridisation.
References:  15
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
Measurement of intracellular calcium levels in a calcium reporter cell line expressing the rat GIP receptor. These are HEK 293 cells stably expressing apo-aequorin, which emits light upon calcium binding.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  HEK 293 cells stably expressing the GIP receptor and apo-aequorin.
Response measured:  Increase in intracellular calcium.
References:  15
Measurement of cAMP levels in CHO-K1 cells transfected with the rat GIP receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  CHO-K1 cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of cAMP formation.
References:  17
Measurement of [Ca2+] i in COS-7 transfected with the rat GIP receptor and the Ca2+ indicator fura-2/AM.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  COS-7 cells transfected with the rat GIP receptor and loaded with a Ca2+ indicator.
Response measured:  Increase in [Ca2+] i.
References:  17
Measurement of glucose-dependent cell proliferation (rate of DNA synthesis) in the rat β-cell line INS-1.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  β-cell line INS-1 endogenously expressing the GIP receptor.
Response measured:  Glucose-dependent cell proliferation.
References:  12
Determination of the activity of the PKA/CREB signalling cascade by measurement of the phosphorylation of CREB using luciferase as a reporter gene and immunoblotting with an antibody for phosphorylated CREB at Ser133.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  β-cell line INS-1 endogenously expressing the GIP receptor.
Response measured:  Glucose-dependent rise in CREB phosphorylation.
References:  12
Determination of the activity of the MAPK cascade by measurement of the phosphorylation of the transcription factor Elk-1 using luciferase as a reporter gene and immunoblotting with an antibody for the phosphorylated MAPK.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  β-cell line INS-1 endogenously expressing the GIP receptor.
Response measured:  Glucose-dependent Elk-1 phosphorylation.
References:  12
Measurement of glycerol release in the mouse cell line, 3T3-L1.
Effect of an AC inhibitor on this glycerol production.
Effect of incubation with insulin on this glycerol production.
Effect of the PI3 kinase inhibitor, wartmannin, on this glycerol release.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  3T3-L1 cell line.
Response measured:  Stimulation of glycerol release via AC activation.
Blocked by insulin via PI3 Kinase.
References:  8
Measurement of in cytosolic Ca2+ and cAMP concentrations in the osteosarcoma cell line, SaOS2, in response to GIP.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  SaOS2 cells.
Response measured:  Increase in [Ca2+] and cAMP levels.
References:  1
Measurement of collagen type 1 expression in the osteosarcoma cell line, SaOS2.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  SaOS2 cell line.
Response measured:  Stimulation of collagen type 1 expression.
References:  1
Measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the human osteosarcoma cell line MG63.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  MG63 cell line.
Response measured:  Increase in ALP activity.
References:  1
Measurement of cAMP levels in LGIPR2 cells stably transfected with the rat GIP receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  LGIPR2 cells.
Response measured:  Stimulation of cAMP production.
References:  13
Measurement of arachidonic acid eflux from CHO-K1 cells transfected with the rat GIP receptor.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  CHO-K1 cells.
Response measured:  Increase in arachidonic acid release.
References:  3
Physiological Functions
Stimulation of insulin release in fasted anesthetised rats.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  In vivo.
References:  13
Facilitation of glucose uptake in the small intestine.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Small intestine.
References:  14
Stimulation of pancreatic insulin release.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Pancreas.
References:  14
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
GIP receptor knockout mice exhibit higher blood glucose levels with impaired initial insulin response after oral glucose.
Since the GIP receptor appears to be involved in insulin secretion, a defect in this receptor may have a role in the development of diabetes.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  9
GIP receptor knockout mice exhibited a defect in insulin secretion leading to glucose intolerance during oral glucose absorption.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.
References:  11
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Giprtm1Yse Giprtm1Yse/Giprtm1Yse
involves: 129P2/Ola * C57BL/6J
MGI:1352753  MP:0002078 abnormal glucose homeostasis PMID: 10611300 
Giprtm1Thor Giprtm1Thor/Giprtm1Thor
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352753  MP:0002694 abnormal pancreas secretion PMID: 14966573 
Giprtm1Thor|Glp1rtm1Ddr Giprtm1Thor/Giprtm1Thor,Glp1rtm1Ddr/Glp1rtm1Ddr
involves: 129/Sv * 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352753  MGI:99571  MP:0002694 abnormal pancreas secretion PMID: 14966573 
Giprtm1Yse Giprtm1Yse/Giprtm1Yse
involves: 129P2/Ola * C57BL/6J
MGI:1352753  MP:0002727 decreased circulating insulin level PMID: 10611300 
Giprtm1Thor Giprtm1Thor/Giprtm1Thor
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352753  MP:0002727 decreased circulating insulin level PMID: 14966573 
Giprtm1Thor|Glp1rtm1Ddr Giprtm1Thor/Giprtm1Thor,Glp1rtm1Ddr/Glp1rtm1Ddr
involves: 129/Sv * 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352753  MGI:99571  MP:0002727 decreased circulating insulin level PMID: 14966573 
Giprtm1Yse Giprtm1Yse/Giprtm1Yse
involves: 129P2/Ola * C57BL/6J
MGI:1352753  MP:0001559 hyperglycemia PMID: 10611300 
Giprtm1Thor Giprtm1Thor/Giprtm1Thor
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352753  MP:0005293 impaired glucose tolerance PMID: 14966573 
Giprtm1Thor|Glp1rtm1Ddr Giprtm1Thor/Giprtm1Thor,Glp1rtm1Ddr/Glp1rtm1Ddr
involves: 129/Sv * 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352753  MGI:99571  MP:0005293 impaired glucose tolerance PMID: 14966573 
Giprtm1Thor Giprtm1Thor/Giprtm1Thor
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352753  MP:0005559 increased circulating glucose level PMID: 14966573 
Giprtm1Thor|Glp1rtm1Ddr Giprtm1Thor/Giprtm1Thor,Glp1rtm1Ddr/Glp1rtm1Ddr
involves: 129/Sv * 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:1352753  MGI:99571  MP:0005559 increased circulating glucose level PMID: 14966573 

References

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1. Bollag RJ, Zhong Q, Phillips P, Min L, Zhong L, Cameron R, Mulloy AL, Rasmussen H, Qin F, Ding KH, Isales CM. (2000) Osteoblast-derived cells express functional glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptors. Endocrinology141: 1228-1235. [PMID:10698200]

2. Deacon CF, Plamboeck A, Rosenkilde MM, de Heer J, Holst JJ. (2006) GIP-(3-42) does not antagonize insulinotropic effects of GIP at physiological concentrations. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.291 (3): E468-75. [PMID:16608883]

3. Ehses JA, Lee SS, Pederson RA, McIntosh CH. (2001) A new pathway for glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor signaling: evidence for the involvement of phospholipase A2 in GIP-stimulated insulin secretion. J Biol Chem276: 23667-23673. [PMID:11323439]

4. Gallwitz B, Witt M, Morys-Wortmann C, Folsch UR, Schmidt WE. (1996) GLP-1/GIP chimeric peptides define the structural requirements for specific ligand-receptor interaction of GLP-1. Regul Pept63: 17-22. [PMID:8795084]

5. Gault VA, O'Harte FP, Harriott P, Mooney MH, Green BD, Flatt PR. (2003) Effects of the novel (Pro3)GIP antagonist and exendin(9-39)amide on GIP- and GLP-1-induced cyclic AMP generation, insulin secretion and postprandial insulin release in obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice: evidence that GIP is the major physiological incretin. Diabetologia46 (2): 222-30. [PMID:12627321]

6. Gelling RW, Coy DH, Pederson RA, Wheeler MB, Hinke S, Kwan T, McIntosh CH. (1997) GIP(6-30amide) contains the high affinity binding region of GIP and is a potent inhibitor of GIP1-42 action in vitro. Regul Pept69: 151-154. [PMID:9226399]

7. Hansen LS, Sparre-Ulrich AH, Christensen M, Knop FK, Hartmann B, Holst JJ, Rosenkilde MM. (2015) N- and C-terminally truncated forms of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide are high-affinity competitive antagonists of the human GIP receptor. Br. J. Pharmacol.,  [Epub ahead of print]. [PMID:26572091]

8. McIntosh CH, Bremsak I, Lynn FC, Gill R, Hinke SA, Gelling R, Nian C, McKnight G, Jaspers S, Pederson RA. (1999) Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide stimulation of lipolysis in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells: wortmannin-sensitive inhibition by insulin. Endocrinology140 (1): 398-404. [PMID:9886851]

9. Miyawaki K, Yamada Y, Yano H, Niwa H, Ban N, Ihara Y, Kubota A, Fujimoto S, Kajikawa M, Kuroe A et al.. (1999) Glucose intolerance caused by a defect in the entero-insular axis: a study in gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor knockout mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.96 (26): 14843-7. [PMID:10611300]

10. Parthier C, Kleinschmidt M, Neumann P, Rudolph R, Manhart S, Schlenzig D, Fanghänel J, Rahfeld JU, Demuth HU, Stubbs MT. (2007) Crystal structure of the incretin-bound extracellular domain of a G protein-coupled receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.104 (35): 13942-7. [PMID:17715056]

11. Preitner F, Ibberson M, Franklin I, Binnert C, Pende M, Gjinovci A, Hansotia T, Drucker DJ, Wollheim C, Burcelin R, Thorens B. (2004) Gluco-incretins control insulin secretion at multiple levels as revealed in mice lacking GLP-1 and GIP receptors. J Clin Invest113: 635-345. [PMID:14966573]

12. Trumper A, Trumper K, Trusheim H, Arnold R, Goke B, Horsch D. (2001) Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide is a growth factor for beta (INS-1) cells by pleiotropic signaling. Mol Endocrinol15: 1559-1570. [PMID:11518806]

13. Tseng CC, Wolfe MM. (1996) Postprandial stimulation of insulin release by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). Effect of a specific glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor antagonist in the rat. J. Clin. Invest.98: 2440-2445. [PMID:8958204]

14. Tseng CC, Zhang XY, Wolfe MM. (1999) Effect of GIP and GLP-1 antagonists on insulin release in the rat. Am J Physiol276: 1049-1054. [PMID:10362617]

15. Usdin TB, Bonner TI. (1993) Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor, a member of the secretin- vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor family, is widely distributed in peripheral organs and the brain. Endocrinology133: 2861-2870. [PMID:8243312]

16. Volz A, Goke R, Lankat-Buttgereit B, Fehmann HC, Bode HP, Goke B. (1995) Molecular cloning, functional expression, and signal transduction of the GIP-receptor cloned from a human insulinoma. FEBS Lett373: 23-29. [PMID:7589426]

17. Wheeler MB, Gelling RW, McIntosh CH, Georgiou J, Brown JC, Pederson RA. (1995) Functional expression of the rat pancreatic islet glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor: ligand binding and intracellular signaling properties. Endocrinology136: 4629-4639. [PMID:7664683]

18. Xiong Y, Guo J, Candelore MR, Liang R, Miller C, Dallas-Yang Q, Jiang G, McCann PE, Qureshi SA, Tong X et al.. (2012) Discovery of a novel glucagon receptor antagonist N-[(4-{(1S)-1-[3-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl)-5-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]ethyl}phenyl)carbonyl]-β-alanine (MK-0893) for the treatment of type II diabetes. J. Med. Chem.55 (13): 6137-48. [PMID:22708876]

19. Zhong Q, Bollag RJ, Dransfield DT, Gasalla-Herraiz J, Ding KH, Min L, Isales CM. (2000) Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide signaling pathways in endothelial cells. Peptides21: 1427-1432. [PMID:11072131]

Contributors

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How to cite this page

Dominique Bataille, Philippe Delagrange, Daniel J. Drucker, Burkhard Göke, Rebecca Hills, Kelly E. Mayo, Laurence J. Miller, Bernard Thorens.
Glucagon receptor family: GIP receptor. Last modified on 02/05/2016. Accessed on 19/08/2017. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=248.